Haystack, 1938
Thomas Hart Benton, American, 1889–1975
Tempera with oil glaze on linen, on wood panel
24 × 30 in. (61 × 76.2 cm)
Gift of Frank J. Hevrdejs

Habits of Mind

  • SYNTHESIZE Analyze and synthesize relationships and information / compare and contrast / understand the micro and macro implications
  • DEVELOP GRIT Develop endurance / grit / desire to rework ideas / open to a range of ideas and solutions/ possess self-discipline and self-confidence

Studying Ecology

Discussion through works of art encourage how to approach ambiguous and complex ideas, thoughts, and feelings. The MFAH offers a democratic space where students and teachers can develop, practice and articulate these habits of mind. Remember that the quality of the conversation is what is important, not finding the artist’s “answer.” Slow down and take the time to make careful observations. Talk about what you notice, and try to avoid jumping to conclusions and interpretations. Be sure to give enough time for silent looking and thinking.

Curriculum Objectives

•  Using latitude and longitude

•  Describe the physical features, plants and animals of these areas

•  Locate regions of the United States




Social Studies



Develop Grit

Connecting to the Work of Art

Although this landscape cannot be identified as a specific site, it evokes the gentle hills and valleys of the southern United States.  Benton identified this scene as a hill farm in North Carolina, a place he had visited in 1928.  He found this area fascinating because the communities resisted change and continued older traditions.  In this rural scene, two men build a haystack around a support pole, while a third man on horseback delivers more hay.


This painting is an example of the artist’s mature style.  The composition is dominated by the central haystack.  The rolling hills, the mass of trees, the clouds, and the curving road enclose the haystack and repeat its rounded contours.  Rich earthtones – browns, greens, and golds – unify the composition.  Benton was interested in placing shapes to suggest three-dimensional volumes and deep space.  Here the overlapping hills and clumps of trees and the alternation of areas of light and shadow provide a sense of space.  Benton also used the contrasts of light and shadow to make objects look three-dimensional and to add drama to the composition.


Benton’s study of Italian Renaissance painting inspired him to work in the medium of tempera, dry pigments mixed with egg yolk and water.  Unlike oil paints, which dry slowly, egg tempera dries quickly to a smooth, hard surface.  Dynamic brushstrokes animate the landscape and give the haystack a lively energy.


Thomas Hart Benton was one of a group of artists called Regionalists, who during the 1920s and 1930s, turned away from the influence of contemporary European painting to concentrate on depictions of rural life in the United States.  Benton was born in Missouri in 1889.  He is best known for his realistic scenes of country life and historical murals, the most famous of which is a series on the history of Missouri in the State House in Jefferson City.  Benton studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and in 1908 moved to Paris.  Initially he was an abstract painter, but by 1920 Benton had abandoned what he called “the modern experiment” to paint the histories, landscapes, and people of rural America in murals and in smaller works like Haystack.  On Christmas Eve 1934, he became the first artist to appear on the cover of Time magazine.  The accompanying article focused on his portrayal of country life. 


During the 1930s, the era of the Great Depression, the economic hardships and related societal conflicts prompted some American artists to turn away from abstract art and to address subjects that celebrated rural life.  This group of artists, called Regionalists, rejected contemporary European influences, believing that the true expression of American art could be found in the depiction of the life of small towns and farms. 


  • What do you notice about the colors in this painting?

  • What are the main shapes that make up the composition?

  • Where do your eyes go to first? Do you think the artist’s composition is drawing our attention to one area of the work? Which area?

  • What can you say about the position of the horizon?

  • The artist was interested in three-dimensionality and suggesting space. What tools does he use to suggest depth and perspective? Think about the horizon, about color and shading and about overlapping elements in the picture.

  • This artist is one of a group of artists called Regionalists, who during the 1920s and 1930s, turned away from the influence of contemporary European painting to concentrate on depictions of rural life in the United States. What do we understand by ‘rural’? Do you recognize the location depicted here?

  • What brushstrokes are used here? Do you think this is a realistic depiction of the landscape? Why?

  • If you were to employ all your senses and imagine yourself in this landscape, what would you see/ hear/ smell/ feel?


  • How would you describe the mood of this landscape? Is it a mainly positive rendition of life on a farm? Why, or why not?

  • What time of day/ time of year do you think it is?

  • The artist cleverly uses color to convey a sense of peace and calm. Describe how he achieves this.

  • At the same time, the swirling forms of the curving road and the rolling hills support the calm vibe of the work. How would this painting be different if the artist had used harder, more straight forms?

  • Rich earthtones – browns, greens, and golds – unify the composition. How would this work be different if the artist had used brighter, stronger colors?

  • The composition is dominated by the central haystack and the farmers working on the land. Why do you think the artist wanted to emphasize these elements?

  • During the 1930s, the era of the Great Depression, the economic hardships and related societal conflicts prompted this artist to turn away from contemporary and abstract images, and to address subjects that celebrated rural life. Do you think the countryside offers a sense of stability and of calm? Why?

  • The artist idealized the landscape in order to escape the realities of everyday life in America. But he also conveyed a strong message that life was better before. Do you agree that the past offers comfort?

  • Do you think it is good for an artist to offer us an escape, or should art confront us with our present?


With your class, locate North Carolina on a map. Together, identify the latitude and longitude of the state’s boundaries. Compare with those of Texas. How much land area does each state take up? How do students imagine North Carolina and Texas ecosystems might compare?

Guide students to research and explore the ecosystems of North Carolina, including geography, plants, animals, and climate. Be sure to also discuss the ways that people have changed the environments, for better or for worse. Then, discuss the natural features visible in Haystack. What kind of ecosystem might this scene be taking place in? How can students tell?

Students can summarize their findings about North Carolina’s ecology in brief reports. For an extension to the lesson, they may compare and contrast the ecologies of North Carolina with that of Texas, or summarize change over time in a particular area.

Subject Matter Connection

In the discipline of Social Studies, students need to be able to think conceptually and differentiate between which patterns and ideas are common across societies. Students need to be able to recognize those ideas— whether economic, social, or political—that are not bound by time and place, and how a group’s perspective may affect the historical interpretation of those ideas and principles.

The Learning Through Art program is endowed by Melvyn and Cyvia Wolff.

The Learning Through Art curriculum website is made possible in part by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

All Learning and Interpretation programs at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, receive endowment income from funds provided by the Louise Jarrett Moran Bequest; Caroline Wiess Law; the William Randolph Hearst Foundation; The National Endowment for the Humanities; the Fondren Foundation; BMC Software, Inc.; the Wallace Foundation; the Neal Myers and Ken Black Children’s Art Fund; the Favrot Fund; and Gifts in honor of Beth Schneider.