Vincent van Gogh, Dutch, 1853–1890
Oil on canvas
Overall (Canvas size): 21 5/8 × 25 7/8 in. (54.9 × 65.7 cm) Frame: 30 × 34 5/8 × 2 1/4 in. (76.2 × 87.9 × 5.7 cm)
Habits of Mind
- OVERCOME FEAR Overcome fear of ambiguity / fear of failure or being wrong / fear of the unknown
- SYNTHESIZE Analyze and synthesize relationships and information / compare and contrast / understand the micro and macro implications
SUBJECT AREASocial Studies
Discussion through works of art encourage how to approach ambiguous and complex ideas, thoughts, and feelings. The MFAH offers a democratic space where students and teachers can develop, practice and articulate these habits of mind. Remember that the quality of the conversation is what is important, not finding the artist’s “answer.” Slow down and take the time to make careful observations. Talk about what you notice, and try to avoid jumping to conclusions and interpretations. Be sure to give enough time for silent looking and thinking.
Connecting to the Work of Art
A twisted oak tree dominates this rocky, windswept landscape. This site is in the south of France, three miles northeast of Arles near the ruined medieval Abbey of Montmajour. Although van Gogh made many drawings of the abbey, The Rocks is his only painting of the countryside near Montmajour. He was so moved by these surroundings that he wrote an evocative letter, dated July 5, 1888, to his brother Theo:
Yesterday at sunset I was on a stony heath where some very small twisted oaks grow; in the background, a ruin on a hill, and wheat in the valley. It was romantic…the sun pouring bright yellow rays on the bushes and the ground, a perfect shower of gold. And all the lines were lovely, the whole thing nobly beautiful. You would not have been surprised to see knights and ladies suddenly appear, coming back from hunting or hawking, or to have heard the voice of some old Provençal troubadour. The fields looked violet, the distances blue.¹
The oak tree rises in the center of the painting, dominating the composition. Van Gogh directs attention to the tree by its large size, its central placement, and the contrast of its dark leaves against the pale sky. Typical of van Gogh’s style are the prominent brushstrokes of thick paint, which create a rich texture and sense of vitality, focusing attention on the flat surface of the painting. Layers of oil paint are built up on the canvas, giving a sculptural quality to the rocks and trees.
In van Gogh’s art, color is an important expressive element. Here the palette relies on cool blues and greens and warm yellows and oranges to capture the sunny landscape. The harmony of colors is appropriate for the “romantic” mood and “nobly beautiful” effect the landscape evoked for van Gogh. The whites, creams, pale blues, and soft pink and peach tones describe the light-filled sky.
Although Vincent van Gogh’s paintings are now among the most famous and sought-after, he did not achieve success during his lifetime. Van Gogh was born in Holland in 1853. His father was a strict Calvinist preacher, but three of his uncles were art dealers and Vincent grew up knowing and loving art. At the age of 26, van Gogh began painting. In 1886 he moved to Paris, where he was influenced by the loose brushwork and bright colors of the Impressionists. Financed by his brother Theo, in 1888 van Gogh moved to Arles in the south of France. During a period of extraordinary artistic productivity interspersed with bouts of insanity, he produced a large number of works, including The Rocks. On July 29, 1890, Vincent van Gogh shot himself. He died two days later.
Before moving to Arles, where he painted The Rocks, Van Gogh spent time in Paris visiting some of the early exhibitions of the Impressionists and seeing the work of artists such as Degas, Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, and Seurat. During his time in Paris he became friends with the artist Paul Gauguin. While van Gogh was influenced by the methods of the Impressionists, his work explored the symbolic and expressive value of color, rather than atmosphere and light. For additional information about Impressionism, see Gustave Caillebotte’s The Orange Trees.
- Ronald Pickvance, Van Gogh in Arles (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984), p. 118.
What aspects of nature do you see represented?
Explain how the horizon line divides the canvas.
Describe the sky. What type of weather does it depict?
In what ways does the artist draw your attention to the tree that rises in the center?
Examine and describe the types of brushstrokes used throughout the painting; i.e. short, thick, sweeping, layered? Locate them in the painting.
Imagine you are holding a paintbrush to paint parts of this landscape.How would your paint brush move?
Describe the types of textures those brushstrokes create. Would you say they add energy to this work of art?Explain.
Notice areas where layers of paint are built up on the canvas. How does the application of paint resonate with the actual texture of the nature it represents, like the hard rocks and wispy sky?
Assess how the use of color complements those textures. Give evidence from the painting to support your assessment.
Observe and list the different shades and tints of colors. Distinguish between warm and cool colors. How does their juxtaposition affect the mood of the painting?
Upon visiting this place, the artist said he noticed “the sun pouring bright yellow rays on the bushes and the ground, a perfect shower of gold.1“
How is color used as a form of expression here?
- Analyze the three works of art and name the materials used to create each. Discuss the Redon drawing. Learn how paper and charcoal are made from trees.
- Discuss van Gogh’s painting and the natural materials used to make canvas and oil paints.
- Discuss other ways in which artists use natural materials to make works of art. Focus on the use of trees, then expand to other materials.
Explain how the use of color might be considered to create a harmonious atmosphere. What other words could describe the tone of this painting?
Describe how it would feel to be standing in this scene. Where would you choose to stand? Why?
The artist, Vincent Van Gogh, painted this work of art depicting the countryside around Montmajour, France. He described it to his brother in this way: “ And all the lines were lovely, the whole thing nobly beautiful. You would not have been surprised to see knights and ladies suddenly appear, coming back from hunting or hawking, or to have heard the voice of some old Provençal troubadour. The fields looked violet, the distances blue.¹”
Have you ever visited or driven by a landscape similar to this work of art?In what ways is the place you saw reminiscent of this painting? How was it different?
An artist makes choices in what he/she chooses to portray and here Van Gogh chose to focus on only certain parts of the wider landscape he saw.Hypothesize why he may have chosen to just focus on the tree and rocks. What parts of a landscape would you choose to focus upon? Why?
What title would you give this painting?
Van Gogh entitled this work of art, The Rocks? Correlate that title with the painting and your previous thoughts.
Compare and contrast the use of color, texture, and subject in The Rocks with other landscapes in the galleries.You may also use your device to go to mfah.org and search “landscapes” to find other examples.
- Ronald Pickvance, Van Gogh in Arles (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984), p. 118.
• Research the areas of the world where lumber is produced. What kinds of trees are used for lumber? What are the characteristics of those trees? What geographic and weather conditions are required for different kinds of trees?
• Have students research the lumber industry. What economic and other factors are necessary for a profitable lumber industry? Learn about the importance of transportation for this industry. What other industries depend upon the lumber industry?
• Research the lumber industry in your state or region. Investigate its place in the local, state, national, and international economy.
Subject Matter Connection
In the discipline of Social Studies, students need to be able to think conceptually and differentiate between which patterns and ideas are common across societies. Students need to be able to recognize those ideas— whether economic, social, or political—that are not bound by time and place, and how a group’s perspective may affect the historical interpretation of those ideas and principles.
Resources Available to Order
The Learning Through Art program is endowed by Melvyn and Cyvia Wolff.
The Learning Through Art curriculum website is made possible in part by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services.
All Learning and Interpretation programs at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, receive endowment income from funds provided by the Louise Jarrett Moran Bequest; Caroline Wiess Law; the William Randolph Hearst Foundation; The National Endowment for the Humanities; the Fondren Foundation; BMC Software, Inc.; the Wallace Foundation; the Neal Myers and Ken Black Children’s Art Fund; the Favrot Fund; and Gifts in honor of Beth Schneider.