Portrait of a Boy, c. 1758–1760
John Singleton Copley, American, 1738–1815
Oil on canvas
48 5/8 × 36 1/4 in. (123.4 × 92.1 cm)
The Bayou Bend Collection, gift of Miss Ima Hogg

Habits of Mind

  • OBSERVE DETAILS Observe details / time to think and reflect

Writing Equations from Patterns

Discussion through works of art encourage how to approach ambiguous and complex ideas, thoughts, and feelings. The MFAH offers a democratic space where students and teachers can develop, practice and articulate these habits of mind. Remember that the quality of the conversation is what is important, not finding the artist’s “answer.” Slow down and take the time to make careful observations. Talk about what you notice, and try to avoid jumping to conclusions and interpretations. Be sure to give enough time for silent looking and thinking.

Curriculum Objectives

  • Identify examples of proportional and non-proportional functions that arise from mathematical and real-world problems
  • Writing equations from patterns









Observe Details

Connecting to the Work of Art

In this portrait, John Singleton Copley depicts a confident, young boy, once thought to be the son of American patriot John Hancock. Though that has since been disproven, the boy’s identity remains a mystery. Still, it is easy to establish his social position. The grand nature of the portrait suggests that he is heir to a wealthy and socially ambitious family. His attire is elegant: gray suit, luxurious blue waistcoat, black necktie and shoes, and a pink buttonhole rose. He has fashionably styled hair and a confident, relaxed demeanor. While the setting is fictitious, it draws from images of classical and ornate architecture seen in popular prints of the time. Familiar objects such as expensive toys and a tri-cornered hat further suggest his aristocratic status.

Copley, born to poor Irish immigrants in Boston, rose through the ranks of colonial America’s class structure to become a member of the American aristocracy. Without any formal artistic training, he created his first works of art when he was 15, beginning with the most highly respected art form of the time—history painting. However, such works were not in demand in colonial America, and Copley was forced to focus on portraiture.

This painting is emblematic of Copley’s American portraits. His greatest achievements as a portraitist include his strong contrasts of light and shadow, brilliant use of color, and the ability to capture the distinctive personalities of his sitters. The young boy, vividly depicted against a dark background, displays an easy confidence that was a characteristic endorsed by etiquette books of the time. Copley often utilized portrait d’apparat, the technique of portraying the sitter with items from his or her daily life. For children, this often included toys, such as the badminton battledore and shuttlecock shown here.

With no formal social hierarchy or established ruling class, status in colonial America depended on the display of luxury, wealth, and taste rather than on family lineage. Copley is an excellent example of this social order. Even though his parents kept a small tobacco shop on Boston’s wharf, he rose to the highest echelon of society. His children even acquired titles of nobility in England. Although Copley was rewarded with material success and social status, his greatest goal was to be a recognized artist and to raise the status of the artist from craftsman to that of a gentleman. In England, Copley became an internationally recognized history painter who helped revolutionize the genre of modern history painting. Distinguished by a more compelling and theatrical atmosphere and the depiction of multiple narrative scenes of a historical event, Copley, along with Benjamin West and John Trumbull, formed the “triumvirate of history painters” in the 18th century.


  • Analyze the way that Copley has used light, shadow, and color in this composition. Where are the major light areas? Where are the major dark areas? What effect do they have on the image as a whole?
  • Has Copley chosen naturalistic colors for this painting? Has he used the same color scheme across the entire composition? What effects do his color choices have on the image?
  • Look closely at the boy’s clothing. What words would you use to describe it? What materials are used, and how do they communicate information about the boy and his lifestyle?
  • Similarly, analyze the setting that this boy is standing in. Where might he be? What do the architecture and landscape evoke?
  • The background and setting are fictional, allowing Copley to take full liberty in creating the scene. How does he create a sense of distance and monumentality in this painting’s setting?
  • Copley dedicated careful thought to the objects he placed in this portrait. Look closely at the objects surrounding the boy. What are they? What symbolic connotations might they have?


  • What do the boy’s pudgy features suggest about his daily life? Why might the patron have wanted to portray him that way?
  • Imagine if the boy were seated, or if he were standing rigidly upright. How do you think that change the message of this portrait?
  • Similarly, imagine how the mood and message of the portrait might change if Copley had chosen a different setting. What do the stately architecture and faraway landscape add to the painting and its message?
  • Why might this boy’s family have wanted his portrait painted? What value would this have had in their lives as a status symbol?
  • Though he had no family history of nobility, Copley’s immense success as a painter earned him a spot in the upper echelons of English and American society. Looking at this example of his portraiture, why do you think Copley was in such high demand?
  • How might this painting reflect the colonial American class structure, in which family ties were secondary to wealth and taste? How might this portrait have been different if it was intended for an English audience, with their family-based class system?


  Problem Solving

  • After a discussion on the work of art, this activity helps students write equations from patterns while writing problems to solve.
  • Divide the class into groups and write a story problem that corresponds with work of art.
  • Example: This young man’s family is very wealthy. His parents pay him $12.50 for every toy that he picks up and an additional $20 if he doesn’t whine while he does it. Based on the number of toys he has lying around. How much could he get paid this afternoon assuming that he doesn’t whine? (Hint: the bag doesn’t count as a toy! He tried that too.)

Subject Matter Connection

This is an application piece where students must apply what they have previously learned. Often, young people miss important details when they are making decisions or solving problems. In teaching our students to observe details well and in such a way that allows them to make better judgments, they can be more successful in finding solutions.

The Learning Through Art program is endowed by Melvyn and Cyvia Wolff.

The Learning Through Art curriculum website is made possible in part by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

All Learning and Interpretation programs at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, receive endowment income from funds provided by the Louise Jarrett Moran Bequest; Caroline Wiess Law; the William Randolph Hearst Foundation; The National Endowment for the Humanities; the Fondren Foundation; BMC Software, Inc.; the Wallace Foundation; the Neal Myers and Ken Black Children’s Art Fund; the Favrot Fund; and Gifts in honor of Beth Schneider