Portrait of a Boy, c. 1758–1760
John Singleton Copley, American, 1738–1815
Oil on canvas
48 5/8 × 36 1/4 in. (123.4 × 92.1 cm)
The Bayou Bend Collection, gift of Miss Ima Hogg
Habits of Mind
- OVERCOME FEAR Overcome fear of ambiguity / fear of failure or being wrong / fear of the unknown
Analyzing Assumptions and Overcoming Bias:
Understanding the Law of Conservation of Energy
Remember that the quality of the conversation is what is important, not finding the artist’s “answer.” Slow down and take the time to make careful observations. Talk about what you notice, and try to avoid jumping to conclusions and interpretations. Be sure to give enough time for silent looking and thinking, and be careful about making assumptions.
This Curriculum Connection also includes Earlie Hudnall, Hip Hop.
- The student knows that the Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it just changes form.
- Students demonstrate energy transformations such as energy in muscle cells transforming chemical energy into kinetic energy.
Connecting to the Work of Art
In this portrait, John Singleton Copley depicts a confident, young boy, once thought to be the son of American patriot John Hancock. Though that has since been disproven, the boy’s identity remains a mystery. Still, it is easy to establish his social position. The grand nature of the portrait suggests that he is heir to a wealthy and socially ambitious family. His attire is elegant: gray suit, luxurious blue waistcoat, black necktie and shoes, and a pink buttonhole rose. He has fashionably styled hair and a confident, relaxed demeanor. While the setting is fictitious, it draws from images of classical and ornate architecture seen in popular prints of the time. Familiar objects such as expensive toys and a tri-cornered hat further suggest his aristocratic status.
Copley, born to poor Irish immigrants in Boston, rose through the ranks of colonial America’s class structure to become a member of the American aristocracy. Without any formal artistic training, he created his first works of art when he was fifteen, beginning with the most highly respected art form of the time—history painting. However, such works were not in demand in colonial America and Copley was forced to focus on portraiture.
This painting is emblematic of Copley’s American portraits. His greatest achievements as a portraitist include his strong contrasts of light and shadow, brilliant use of color, and the ability to capture the distinctive personalities of his sitters. The young boy, vividly depicted against a dark background, displays an easy confidence that was a characteristic endorsed by etiquette books of the time. Copley often utilized portrait d’apparat, the technique of portraying the sitter with items from his or her daily life. For children, this often included toys, such as the badminton battledore and shuttlecock shown here.
With no formal social hierarchy or established ruling class, status in colonial America depended on the display of luxury, wealth, and taste rather than on family lineage. Copley is an excellent example of this social order. Even though his parents kept a small tobacco shop on Boston’s wharf, he rose to the highest echelon of society. His children even acquired titles of nobility in England. Although Copley was rewarded with material success and social status, his greatest goal was to be a recognized artist and to raise the status of the artist from craftsman to that of a gentleman. In England, Copley became an internationally recognized history painter who helped revolutionize the genre of modern history painting. Distinguished by a more compelling and theatrical atmosphere and the depiction of multiple narrative scenes of a historical event, Copley, along with Benjamin West and John Trumbull, formed the “triumvirate of history painters” in the 18th century.
- The boy´s slight smile and direct stare exude confidence. Copley used light and shadow to model the figure´s chubby, round features naturalistically. Gilbert Stuart, an artist who worked at the same time as Copley, once remarked that if you "pricked" one of Copley´s portraits, "blood would spurt out." Copley´s portraits were the product of many discussions between the artist and his patron. In this instance, the child´s parents paid Copley a large sum to capture their son´s appearance. What do the boy´s pudgy facial features suggest about his daily life? Why would his parents choose to have him depicted in this manner?
- When Copley began his career there were no art schools or classes in America. Printed, black and white copies of European paintings were popular in the colonies and Copley used these prints as models for his own paintings. As a result, artists in Europe criticized his paintings for "hardness in the drawing, coldness in the shades, and overminuteness." Do you agree with this critique? Why or why not?
- The boy wears a gray suit, black necktie, blue vest with gold buttons, and pink buttonhole rose. What words would you use to describe the pieces of clothing and the materials used to make them?
- What do you think the boy’s clothing says about his social standing and future? What clues does Copley include that make you think this?
- The backdrop for the painting is not an actual location. Copley derived this setting from images of classical architecture seen in the prints he studied. The landscape he created is an idealized view of the American wilderness. How did Copley create a sense of distance in this area of the painting?
- The boy leans against a stone railing with his knee slightly bent. Copley copied this pose from the black and white copies of European paintings that he studied. Like many aspects of this painting, the young man´s stance was meant to convey his personality and way of life. How would the painting change if the boy stood rigidly upright? What does his more casual pose tell you about his personality?
- Copley portrayed his subjects with attributes, items associated with their daily life. The boy holds a battledore, or badminton racket. A shuttlecock rests at his feet and a braid-brimmed, tri-cornered hat sits next to it on the ground. What items would you ask an artist to include in a portrait of yourself?
- The under drawing, the sketch Copley applied to the canvas before painting, indicates that he originally planned to portray the young man with a book under his right arm. How would your thoughts about the boy change if he still held the book?
- Although the boy in this portrait is unidentified, much can still be discerned about him. Analyze the boy’s clothing and hairstyle, his demeanor, the setting, and other objects in the portrait. What does this say about the boy and his family?
- Why would the boy’s family want his portrait painted? Discuss the notion of “status symbol” and how this painting serves that function.
- Copley was a master painter of his time. Look at this painting and describe Copley’s skill as a painter. Copley was also known as a master colorist. Examine his color choices and consider how many vibrant colors Copley included in his palette. What does this say about him as an artist?
- Divide the class into equal teams, and divide the teams into 2 groups. Give one team the Portrait of a Boy and the other team Hip Hop. (Students will not be able to see the other group’s work of art.). Each team will analyze their work of art. Ask students to imitate the boy’s posture. Describe what the boy is wearing (including accessories). Evaluate the boy’s expression. How does the environment he is placed in affect that expression? Hypothesize where and what time period the boy lives in? Could it be a warm or cold climate? Why? Once each group has finished, they will be asked to switch their answers with the other group (still not looking at the other work of art). Read the other groups’ analyzes of the works of art. Does it apply to your boy? Why or why not? Explain your answers.
- Together as a class, discuss the attitudes of each groups’ analyzes. What are the similarities between the works? What are the differences?
- The Law of Conservation of Energy applies to this activity. If energy cannot be created or destroyed, how can we use our analysis of the works of art to show energy transformation? For example, if the sun shone on the young African American boy’s necklace, how would thermal energy transfer occur? If the 18th century boy threw the shuttlecock (birdie) in the air and hit it with his badminton racket, explain how that energy would change. Find other examples of the Law of Conservation of Energy in both art works.
Subject Matter Connection
In science, the scientist has a lot to do with the success of the experiment. Cutting-edge work requires that the scientist be unafraid of failure, ambiguity, or the unknown. The more we address the overwhelming success of failure, the greater scientific risks students will take. The Law of Conservation of Energy is often misunderstood. The middle school student has a hard time understanding the abstract concept of energy not being created or destroyed, but transforming.
Resources Available to Order
The Art-To-Go lending library features materials that may easily be integrated across the K–12 curriculum. Resources include DVDs, music CDs, children’s books, study guides, poster sets, and collection-based interpretive materials produced by the KFEC. Educators, community leaders, and docents from throughout Texas are welcome to borrow Art-To-Go resources. To place your order, search the online catalogue and add the selected items to your basket. After you have reviewed your basket, submit the order electronically.
- John Singleton Copley in England
A catalogue published by the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston accompanying a major exhibition with pieces from 21 institutions regarding Copley´s paintings produced in England.MFAH Catalog Number: BK662
- American Stories
This book shows paintings that conveyed everyday life in America, painted through the years 1765-1915. Features work by John Singleton Copley, William Sidney Mount, Winslow Homer, John Singer Sargent, and Mary Cassat, among others.MFAH Catalog Number: BK757
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The Learning Through Art curriculum website is made possible in part by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services.